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Ancient Greek

Research and Teaching in Ancient Studies at Penn State is supported by the George and Sherry Middlemas Arts and Humanities Library located on the second and third floors of Pattee Library.

Selecting a Research Topic

Pick a topic you enjoy! You want something that is broad enough that you can find information and yet narrow enough that you are not overwhelmed with sources. 

Evaluating Resources

Think critically about web sites and print resources.  

  • AuthorityWho is the author or creator?  What are their credentials for this topic?
  • Content: What is the author's bias? Who was the information written for?
  • CurrencyWhat is the publication date?  When was the website last updated? Does this matter for your topic?
  • ValidityIs the information accurate or valid?  Are there references to other works that support the information?
  • Publisher: Do they have a good reputation?

Citing Your Sources

When using information from another source you must give credit to the original author or you are plagiarizing. You give credit by citing the source. Make sure your citation contains everything you would need to backtrack and find the information again. It is best to pick one citation style and be consistent. 


Plagiarism, whether you copy a paragraph from a book or cut and paste someone else's words from an e-mail, is a violation of Penn State's academic integrity policy.

Citations — Manage Your Personal Library

When working on extensive research projects, you will need to collect, organize and format all those citations!

The following tools are appropriate to use at Penn State. They all allow you to store and search for your references, as well as link with MS Word to easily create in-text citations and bibliographies.

Ask A Librarian!

Always ask a Librarian if you are having trouble!

Search: Combining Terms

Combining Search terms by using AND/OR/NOT

These 'connector' terms (often called "Boolean operators") are used to combine search terms and concepts.


  •  narrows a search so that ALL search TERMS are retrieved.
  • Use this to link different concepts in your search
  • example: dogs AND nutrition


  • expands a search to include ANY ONE of your search terms. 
  • Use this to link synonyms.
  • example: dogs OR canine


  • eliminates unwanted search terms. 
  • Use this carefully because it often results in eliminating some good citations.
  • example: dogs NOT cats

Data Management

The University Libraries can support you or your research group in complying with data management plan requirements from grant funding agencies (NIH, NSF, etc).

Creating a Research Question

Research questions serve two purposes:

Firstly: Research questions focus your topic from something very large into a more focused query that you can answer in your assignment. Sometimes assignments focus on a single large research question, others build in multiple smaller questions. 

"Gun Control?" is not a research question. "Do assault weapon bans decrease violent gun death?" is a research question. 

Secondly: Research questions allow you to use multiple concepts to create a more powerful search. Databases don't always produce good results when searching for a single concept. 

I would type "assault weapon ban" and "gun death" and into LionSearch, or a related database to research this question.  

Focusing the Scope of a Topic

It is very easy to go overboard with really big ideas! Remember, a quality topic is one that you can address thoroughly in the full length of your assignment. Avoid single concepts, generally. Some examples are: 

  • Entire wars or conflicts. 
  • Social issues that are constantly discussed (ex. abortion, or legalizing marijuana)

Instead think about focusing on:

  • How a specific group was affected by a war (ex. how children were affected by conflict in Iraq)
  • A specific element of a social issue (ex. how the criminalization of marijuana has affected black men) 

It's also very easy to get an idea that is so focused that it is essentially impossible to research, often because scholars just haven't looked at that issue yet. Check when you pick a topic that you can find a variety reliable sources on what you plan to address. Some examples are: 

  • Why a little-known athlete is underrated. 
  • How a single video game should receive more awards. 

Instead, think about focusing on:

  • The system that allows excellent athletes to be ignored despite excellent performance, using your athlete as one example.
  • The flaws in the system of evaluation for video games, using your game as one example.