Note: Citations with more than one line of text should have a hanging indent of 1/2 inch or 5 spaces.
Film or video
Johnston, J. (Director). (2004). Hidalgo [Film]. Touchstone/Disney.
Crane, D., Kauffman, M., & Bright, K. (Executive Producers). (1994-2004). Friends. [TV series]. Bright/Kauffman/Crane Productions; Warner Bros.
TV series episode:
Gittelsohn, E. (Director), & Brown, C. (Writer). (1995, October 12). The one with five steaks and an eggplant (Season 2, Episode 4) [TV series episode]. In Crane, D., Kauffman, M., & Bright, K. (Executive Producers), Friends. Bright/Kauffman/Crane Productions; Warner Bros.
In APA style, interviews and other forms of unpublished personal communication, such as e-mail, letters, memos or class notes, are not included in the reference list. Cite interviews and personal communication in parentheses within the text of your paper:
Professor Smith contends that the use of educational technology in the classroom increases student engagement (J. Smith, personal communication, September 4, 2015).
If you refer to a source that is cited in another source, list only the source you consulted directly (the secondary source) in your reference list. Name the original source in the text of your paper, and cite the secondary source in parentheses: “Wallace argues that…. (as cited in Smith, 2009).” In this example, only the Smith source would be included in the reference list. Only include sources that you consulted directly in your reference list.
Whenever possible, try to find and consult the original source. If the Penn State University Libraries does not have the original source, we can try to get it for you through interlibrary loan.