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Hip-Hop and Rap at Penn State Harrisburg

This guide is for students in Penn State Harrisburg's AFAM 226N, AMST 197B, COMM 197B, and other courses focusing on hip-hop and rap. It includes databases, research tips, and other resources for various assignments.

Quick Style Guides

Use these quick guides for examples of how to cite common types of sources in APA, MLA, CSE, and Chicago styles.

MLA Style

This guide contains examples of common citation formats in MLA (Modern Language Association) Style, based on the 9th edition (2021) of the MLA Handbook. MLA style is widely used in the humanities, especially in writing on language and literature.

For information on the 8th edition of the MLA Handbook, see the MLA Quick Guide 8th edition.

Just need a quick citation? Try ZoteroBib.

The 9th edition of the MLA Handbook recommends using the following core elements in every citation. If elements are missing from the source, they should be omitted from the citation.

Title of source.
Title of container,
Other contributors,
Publication date

Note: MLA recommends using hanging indentation for the second and subsequent lines of each entry.

For more information and examples, see the following resources