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HIST 151: Technology and Society in American History (Harrisburg)

This guide is for students in Penn State Harrisburg's HIST 151 and other courses focusing on the history of technology. It includes databases, research tips, and other resources for various assignments.

Quick Style Guides

Use these quick guides for examples of how to cite common types of sources in APA, MLA, CSE, and Chicago styles.

MLA Style

This guide contains examples of common citation formats in MLA (Modern Language Association) Style, based on the 8th edition (2016) of the MLA Handbook. MLA style is widely used in the humanities, especially in writing on language and literature.

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The 8th edition of the MLA Handbook recommends using the following core elements in every citation. If elements are missing from the source, they should be omitted from the citation.

Author.
Title of source.
Title of container,
Other contributers,
Version,
Number,
Publisher,
Publication date
Location.

For online sources:

  • Include the URL (without http:// or https://). Angle brackets are not used around it.

  • Use DOIs (digital object identifiers) when possible.

  • Citing the date when an online work was consulted is optional.

  • Placeholders for unknown information like n.d. (“no date”) are no longer used.

Note: MLA recommends using hanging indentation for the second and subsequent lines of each entry.

For more information and examples, see the following resources