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HDFS 129: Introduction to Human Development and Family Studies

Ray Petren (Penn State Scranton)


One of the sources used for the infographic on the development of self-awareness during infancy is from the PsycINFO database.  Using the citation tool in this database, the citation was copied in APA format as follows:

Lewis, M. (2011). The Origins and Uses of Self-awareness or the Mental Representation of Me. Consciousness and Cognition: An International Journal, 20(1), 120-129.

After reviewing the University Libraries' APA Quick Citation Guide, it was determined that only the first word in the title of an article should be capitalized.  The citation was corrected in the reference list as follows (changes in blue):

Lewis, M. (2011). The origins and uses of self-awareness or the mental representation of me. Consciousness and Cognition: An International Journal, 20(1), 120-129.

To complete the reference list before handing it in, a hanging indent should be applied to this citation, as well as the others.

3. Attribute

Citing Your Sources in ANY Style

  • Once you have gathered all your sources for your infographic, you need to properly attribute where you received all your information in your reference list.
  • Most databases have a tool that allows you to copy and paste citations for the sources you discover there.  While it is permissible to use these tools for your references, please note that many times they contain errors.  A reference list created with these generated citations should be viewed as a rough draft.
  • Once the rough draft of your reference list has citations from either the database tools, citation machines, or those you are manually constructing, use citation manuals or citation guides to verify the correctness of their format.  Ultimately, it is your responsibility to ensure that the reference list you are turning in is completely accurate.

Resources for Creating & Verifying Citations

APA Style

MLA Style