This interactive website is the outgrowth of the Mapping Prejudice project based at the John Borchert Map Library at the University of Minnesota. Its goal is to expose the "hidden histories of race and privilege in the built environment" by creating the first ever comprehensive digital map visualizing the impact of racial covenants in Minneapolis and Hennepin County, Minnesota. The Mapping Prejudice project has become a model for other researchers looking to document the impact of racist practices in their communities.
Twin cities PBS original program: 57 min - Why does Minnesota suffer through some of the worst racial disparities in the nation? The team behind Mapping Prejudice looks to answer that question by examining the history of the spread of racist, restrictive real estate covenants in the early 20th century. Jim Crow of the North charts the progression of racist policies and practices from the advent of restrictive covenants after the turn of the last century, their elimination in the 1960s through to the lasting impact on our cities today.
During the twentieth century, racially-restrictive deeds were a ubiquitous part of real estate transactions. Covenants were embedded in property deeds all over the country to keep people who were not white from buying or even occupying land; their popularity has been well documented in St. Louis; Seattle; Chicago; Hartford, Connecticut; Kansas City and Washington D.C.
A collaboration between the University of Richmond's Digital Scholarship Lab and the National Community Reinvestment Corporation, this website juxtaposes 1930s maps by the federal agency Home Owners' Loan Corporation (HOLC) with contemporary health disparities in designated housing areas. HOLC maps were created to grade neighborhoods in nearly 230 U.S. cities according to a four-grade scale with the "Best" (A) neighborhoods assigned the color green on the maps and "Hazardous" (D) neighborhoods assigned the color red (this is where the term "redlining" comes from). The practice was to assign white-only neighborhoods grades of A and B and neighborhoods with African American/Black, Asian American, Latino/a/x, and recent immigrants grades of C and D. Lower grades of C and D made it harder for applicants to secure mortgages to purchase homes in those neighborhoods as well as discouraging would-be investors. This site uses maps and data to show how this affected property values, infrastructure, quality of schools, and residents' health in the 1930s through to the present day.
This website by the National Community Reinvestment Coalition (NCRC) explores the persistent structure of segregation and economic inequality in a large number of traditionally underserved communities in the U.S.. Included is access to the 1983 NCRC "HOLC 'Redlining' Maps" comparing the grades assigned to neighborhoods in the 1930s by the federal agency the Home Owners' Loan Corporation (HOLC) with the more current economic and demographic status of those neighborhoods. In addition, the site provides interactive maps for 140 metropolitan areas in support of the claim that there exists "a persistent pattern of both economic and racial residential exclusion" in these communities.
This 2020 webinar, explains the Mapping Prejudice Project, based out of the University of Minnesota, which examines the history of housing discrimination in the United States. This webinar, featuring Kevin Ehrman-Solberg, focuses on the city of Minneapolis, Minnesota, and offers a good model for looking at the what, how, and current impact of redlining and housing segregation in other communities. Well backed up with data and maps. [1 hr]
This map shows the practice of Redlining, which originated with the National Housing Act of 1934. By withholding mortgage capital from sections of the population, the Act resulted in significant racial segregation and contributed to the urban decay of inner city areas. Map shows "Racial concentrations" (Jewish, Italian, colored), "Location ratings," "Age" (approximate date of development), real estate sales prices, and "Industrials."
An interactive map of Cook County, Illinois. Other pages discuss the project idea, history, restrictive covenants, a timeline, and other housing discrimination tactics (including redlining and blockbusting).