This article, published by the American Chemical Society Environmental Science Technology Letters (March 2022), explores how historic practice of redlining impacts current air pollution disparities in over 200 U.S. cities.
This page introduces the NCRC Report, "HOLC 'Redlining' Maps: The Persistent Structure of Segregation and Economic Inequality". This study reveals how economic and racial segregation created by "redlining" persists in many cities, persistent income inequalities, persistent residential segregation, how gentrification is related to some lessening of segregation but also with increased economic inequality, and regional differences in changes of HOLC "Hazardous," and low-moderate income, and majority-minority areas.
This New York Times article argues that appraisers should not meet a homeowner, thereby reducing racial biases that could undervalue a home.
Penn State patrons can access this article by signing up for a New York Times account as part of the Student News Readership Program.
This Brookings research brief examines the findings of a Freddie Mac analysis of the U.S. home appraisal industry through the context of their own studies on the devaluation of housing in Black neighborhoods, as well as other literature. This brief also references the report in the link below.
This Brookings report includes some major findings: homes in neighborhoods where the population is mostly Black are valued at roughly half the price as homes in neighborhoods with no Black residents; differences in home and neighborhood quality do not fully explain the devaluation of homes in Black neighborhoods; metropolitan areas with greater devaluation of Black neighborhoods are more segregated and produce less upward mobility.
This quantitative study examines trends in racial and ethnic discrimination in U.S. housing and mortgage lending from 1976-2016. The study includes 16 field experiments of housing discrimination and 19 observational studies of mortgage lending discrimination.
The abstract can be viewed by non-PSU patrons here .
This study focuses on Southwest Baltimore and found that nationally reported health disparities (such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and use of health services) either vanished or substantially narrowed in this racially integrated low income neighborhood.
This online article,published in September 2021 by the African American newspaper "New Pittsburgh Courier," reports on the Carnegie Mellon University report "Inherited Inequality: The State of Financing for Affordable Housing in the City of Pittsburgh." Includes information on national home ownership by race, the difference in loan approval and amounts by race, and points to the effect this has on generational wealth and encouraging gentrification of African American neighborhoods in Pittsburgh.
The complete 129-page report by Carnegie Mellon University, Parents Against Violence, and Lower Marshall-Shadeland Development Initiative, published in September 2021. Provides extensive data related to bank home loan practices in Pittsburgh from 2007 to 2019.