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CAS 100A: Effective Speech

Jim Hart (Penn State Scranton)

3. Attribute

Citing Your Sources in ANY Style

  • Once you have gathered all your sources and crafted your speech outline, you need to properly attribute where you received all your information in your reference list.
  • Most databases have a tool that allows you to copy and paste citations for the sources you discover there.  While it is permissible to use these tools for your references, please note that many times they contain errors.  A reference list created with these generated citations should be viewed as a rough draft.
  • Once the rough draft of your reference list has citations from either the database tools, citation machines, or those you are manually constructing, use citation manuals or citation guides to verify the correctness of their format.  Ultimately, it is your responsibility to ensure that the reference list you are turning in is completely accurate.

Resources for Creating & Verifying Citations

APA Style

MLA Style