The Chicago Assyrian Dictionary, initiated in 1921 by James Henry Breasted, is compiling a comprehensive dictionary of the various dialects of Akkadian, the earliest known Semitic language that was recorded on cuneiform texts that date from c. 2400 B.C. to A.D. 100 which were recovered from archaeological excavations of ancient Near Eastern sites. The Assyrian Dictionary is in every sense a joint undertaking of resident and non-resident scholars from around the world who have contributed their time and labor over a period of seventy years to the collection of the source materials and to the publication of the Dictionary.
The handlist of Ancient Egyptian words known to Egyptologists as the "Beinlich Wordlist" was announced by Horst Beinlich and Friedhelm Hoffmann in Göttinger Miszellen 140 (1994), 101-3. The raw data of the Wordlist is simply the Egyptian word in transliteration, a German translation, and brief references to the Wörterbuch or more recent publications. It is everyone's wish that the authors' hope of translations of the wordlist into other languages might come about.
A new dictionary of the Aramaic language, to be called The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon, has been in preparation by an international team of scholars since 1986, currently with headquarters at the Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati. This major scholarly reference work will cover all dialects and periods of ancient Aramaic, one of the principal languages of antiquity, with a literature of central importance for history and civilization, and especially for the Jewish and Christian religions.
The Demotic Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago (CDD) is a lexicographic tool for reading texts written in a late stage of the ancient Egyptian language and in a highly cursive script known as Demotic. In use from ca. 650 B.C. until the middle of the fifth century A.D., Demotic served as the medium for a wide variety of text types. These include “documentary” texts, such as business and legal documents, private letters and administrative inscriptions, and “literary” texts, including not only works of literature per se, for example, narrative texts and pieces of wisdom literature, but also religious and magical texts and scientific texts dealing with topics such as astronomy, mathematics, and medicine. Demotic texts thus not only provide important witnesses for the development of ancient Egyptian linguistic and paleographical traditions but also constitute an indispensable source for reconstructing the social, political, and cultural life of ancient Egypt during a fascinating period of its history.
The CDD is intended to supplement and update W. Erichsen’s Demotisches Glossar, which was published in 1954 and has been the only large-scale dictionary of Demotic available to the scholarly world.
The Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics Online offers a systematic and comprehensive treatment of all aspects of the history and study of the Hebrew language from its earliest attested form to the present day.
The Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics Online features advanced search options, as well as extensive cross-references and full-text search functionality using the Hebrew character set.
The Etymological Dictionary of Akkadian is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft as a long-term project. The project leaders are Leonid Kogan (Moscow), Manfred Krebernik (Jena) and Michael P. Streck (Leipzig). The project started on July 1st, 2013.
One module of the project is to create a Supplement to the Akkadian dictionaries mentioned above. This is the task of the Leipzig team (Michael P. Streck, Nadezda Rudik). The supplement is meant to provide new references for Akkadian words in the many texts published after the end of the Akkadisches Handwörterbuch and The Assyrian Dictionary of the University of Chicago as well as new secondary literature and corrections. The supplement is published online below.
The Chicago Hittite Dictionary Project (CHD) was officially started in 1975 with the awarding of an NEH grant to Harry A. Hoffner and Hans G. Güterbock, the editors. It was conceived in answer to a recognized need for a Hittite-English lexical tool, a concordance for lexicographical research for all parts of the corpus of Hittite texts.
This lexicon contains 1,255 Sumerian logogram words and 2,511 Sumerian compound words. A logogram is a reading of a cuneiform sign which represents a word in the spoken language. Sumerian scribes invented the practice of writing in cuneiform on clay tablets sometime around 3400 B.C. in the Uruk/Warka region in the south of ancient Iraq. [The etymology of 'Iraq' may come from this region, biblical Erech. Medieval Arabic sources used the name 'Iraq' as a geographical term for the area in the south and center of the modern republic.] The Sumerian language spoken by the inventors of writing is known to us through a large body of texts and through bilingual cuneiform dictionaries of Sumerian and Akkadian, the language of their Semitic successors, to which Sumerian is not related. These bilingual dictionaries date from the Old Babylonian period (1800-1600 B.C.), by which time Sumerian had ceased to be spoken, except by the scribes. The earliest and most important words in Sumerian had their own cuneiform signs, whose origins were pictographic, making an initial repertoire of about a thousand signs or logograms. Beyond these words, two-thirds of this lexicon now consists of words that are transparent compounds of separate logogram words. I have greatly expanded the section containing compounds in this version, but I know that many more compound words could be added.
The Encyclopedia of Ancient History is the only comprehensive collection of twenty-first century scholarship available on the entire ancient Mediterranean world. Our board of experienced and internationally diverse editors has collected over 5,000 original entries spanning the late Bronze Age through the seventh century CE. Entries extend to all Mediterranean civilizations, including the Near East and Egypt, and represent an unprecedented level of coverage of the ancient world.
Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship.
Brill's New Pauly and Der Neue Pauly have become a recognized standard reference work for students and scholars of the ancient world. Now, the complete original Der Neue Pauly together with Brill's New Pauly are offered online. New Pauly Online will allow the researcher to have the most complete database available. New Pauly Online is automatically updated whenever a new volume is published.
Egyptology has as its object of study the history, practices, and conceptual categories of a culture that was remarkably prolific in terms of written texts, art, architecture, and other forms of material culture. The knowledge of Egyptologists, archaeologists, linguists, geologists, and all other professionals who are involved in research related to Ancient Egypt reflect the interdisciplinary approach that is needed to make sense of such a wealth of information. The peer-reviewed articles of the UEE are written by the world's leading scholars.
In the coming decade we will continue to build the content of the UEE, while a separate web site, the UEE Full Version, will be available starting in 2010. The full version will have enhanced searches, such as a map-search functionality, alphabetical and subject browsing, in-text links, explanations of terminology for non-professionals, an image archive, and Virtual Reality reconstructions. In addition, a Data-Access Level is under development, which links articles with the results of original research. Information on the development of the UEE Full Version can be found at http://www.uee.ucla.edu.
Civilizations of the Ancient Near East
by Jack M. Sasson (Editor)
Publication Date: 1995-06-01
Dictionary of the Ancient Near East
by Piotr Bienkowski (Editor); Alan Millard (Editor)
Publication Date: 2000-03-02
The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land
by Ephraim Stern (Editor); Ayelet Lewinson-Gilboa (Editor); Joseph Aviram (Editor)
Pleiades is a community-built gazetteer and graph of ancient places. It publishes authoritative information about ancient places and spaces, providing unique services for finding, displaying, and reusing that information under open license.
The aim of the bibliography is to collect and arrange systematically only those studies directly or mainly related to subjects of Semitic linguistics, namely, those centered on the study of languages and their phonological, morphological, syntactic and semantic constituents, from both the comparative perspective(close and distant relationship) and the immanent perspective (grammar and lexicon). Consequently, all other studies dealing with the history of the societies which use or used those languages and with everything that is built on them (socio-political history, literature, religion and ‘culture’ in general), remain excluded.
This bibliography originated in the early 1980s during my studies at Yale University. In the summer of 1981, Marvin Pope hired me to produce a general bibliography regarding Ugaritic mythological texts. The following year Robert R. Wilson put into my hands a basic bibliography for a reading course on Hebrew historical grammar that he had inherited from his own teacher at Yale, S. Dean McBride. Professor Wilson's bibliography as well as the bibliographical learning gained under Professor Pope were useful later for courses that I offered. I have also found it useful to maintain the bibliography as a resource for my own research and for course readings. A couple of years ago I made this bibliography available to interested scholars and students in the form of xerox copies. At that time, it was suggested to me that this bibliography should be published. Despite the flaws of this edition and despite some misgivings, I have decided to proceed with this e-version so that the bibliography can be made more widely available.
The BibMAS database aims to realize an expanded and updated version of the Bibliography of Babylonian and Assyrian astronomy internal anchor link
Bibliography of Babylonian and Assyrian astronomy
by Walker C produced by Christopher B.F. Walker which was circulated privately in 2013 (and of which an earlier version was published in Graz 1993); joined together with the 2004 website Bibliography of Mesopotamian Astronomy and Astrology by Robert van Gent.
The International Keilschriftbibliographie (KeiBi) was first published by the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome in the journal Orientalia in 1940 (Orientalia N.S. 9). It became an essential tool for the study, research, and teaching of Ancient Near Eastern Studies. The search for entries, though, proves quite cumbersome – a weakness that all bibliographies issued over a substantial period of time share. To enable better access we hereby present the KeiBi online Database, where all issues already published can be searched simultaneously.
The modern academic study of the Bible is a highly technical and multifaceted field. Its practitioners are often required to gain expertise in diverse areas ranging from archaeology, Egyptology, Assyriology, and linguistics through textual, historical, and sociological studies, to literary theory, feminist studies, philosophy, and theology – to name but a few. As a result, the field of Biblical Studies is incredibly dynamic, with new discoveries, new methodologies, and new perspectives continually being brought to bear on the interpretation of the Bible. Managing the ever-expanding universe of scholarly publications in this field of study has proven to be a monumental if not near impossible task. Oxford Bibliographies in Biblical Studies provides students and scholars with a reliable and authoritative solution to the problem of information overload.
The study of the ancient world is a cornerstone of Western scholarship. It possesses a long history with a rich, well-established critical literature, and it is also a highly active field, which constantly produces new discoveries, interpretations, and theories. In addition to a vast body of scholarship, Classical Studies has been quick to move online so that today’s students and researchers have ready access to key primary source texts and a range of electronic resources. Oxford Bibliographies in Classics provides students and scholars with a reliable and authoritative solution to the problem of information overload in all media.
The field of Jewish studies is broad and interdisciplinary, encompassing history, religion, philosophy, literature, sociology and political science. Its chronological and geographical range is immense, stretching from the Bible to the present and including communities from the Americas to Western and Eastern Europe, North Africa and the Middle East, South and East Asia, and Africa. Given the diversity of Jewish culture, it is extraordinarily difficult for students and scholars to stay informed about such a wide diversity of sources. The Oxford Bibliographies Jewish Studies offers expert guidance through its carefully selected articles that break down subject areas into their component parts and pithy annotations that summarize the main contribution of each citation.