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INTAG 100: Introduction to International Agriculture

Noel Habashy

Citing your Sources

Projects like this are a synthesis of information from a wide variety of resources.  We need to give credit to the sources we used to form our opinions and solutions. Plagiarism, whether you copy a paragraph from a book or cut and paste someone else's words from an e-mail, is a violation of Penn State's academic integrity policy.  We also want to allow the reader or viewer of our project to investigate those sources themselves. 

You give credit by citing the source. Make sure your citation contains everything you would need to backtrack and find the information again.

Properly formatted references assist the reader in determining if they want to read that source themselves.

Hint: It is not appropriate to simply list a URL because a URL in and of itself does not give anyone enough information to judge the quality and relevance of that source.

What does this URL tell you?

not much.

How about this reference?  

Moberg, M. (2005). Fair trade and eastern Caribbean banana farmers: Rhetoric and reality in the anti-globalization movement. Human Organization, 64 (1), 4-15.  Retrieved from

much more!

Important elements in any reference are the author, date, title, and where it was published (journal title or publisher name or web site address).  Sometimes one or more of these pieces is not available. In particular, web sites often do not have an author or date. Remember, organizations can be used as a "corporate author" if not other author is obvious.  

Hint: If you use a graphic from a statistics database (such as FAOSTAT Database), label the graphic with the source (ie. Source: FAOSTAT Database), and include FAOSTAT in your bibliography in this way, replacing the month, day and year with the date you retrieved the data:

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2012). FAOSTAT Database. Rome, Italy: FAO. Retrieved January 30, 2015 from

In-Text (internal) citations

Within the paper, you will use an "in-text" citation to let your reader know what source provided that information. It is easiest to create the entry in your final reference list first, and then derive the in-text citation from that.

Your in-text citation should lead your reader to the corresponding entry in the reference list.  Since your final reference list is arranged alphabetically by author, your in-text citation uses the author and date.  For example:  (Moberg, 2005). Items without an author use the title for alphabetizing so you would use the title in your in-text citation. For example: (Banana statistics, 2012).

Hint: Cite websites in text as you would any other source, which means you use the author if one is available (remember, the organization can be the author), and if no author is available, use the website title.  

Follow the APA style for the references in this project.