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RTE 301: Railroad Industry Overview and Economic Regulation

APA Citations

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association officially uses the 7th edition. You may use either the 6th or 7th edition in RTE 301 following the guidelines provided by your instructor.

  • The 7th edition print manual is located in the general collection (stacks) of the Eiche Library using the call # BF76.7.P83 2020


APA in-text citations are used in every instance where you:

  • Quote
    • When you use the author's exact words. Use quote marks around the entire quote.
  • Paraphrase
    • When you write in your own words what you read. Do not use quote marks.
  • Summarize
    • Like paraphrasing, but the idea you are writing is more general and brief. Do not use quote marks.

Please note:

  • In this class you will deviate slightly from the standard APA author/date in-text citation style for quotations: (Melville, 1851).
  • Whether if you quote, paraphrase, or summarize passages, you must also include page numbers in cases where crucial conclusions or interpretations from books are used.


  • Quote
    • One study found that “the listener's familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 85).
  • Paraphrase
    • A study determined that prior knowledge of a discussed topic impacts full understanding (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 85).
  • Summarize
    • Knowledge of a topic effects full understanding (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 85).