Welcome to Penn State! This guide is intended to help students in First Year Seminar - Statistics (PSU 016, section 550) discover all the Penn State University Libraries have to offer. We have textbooks, study space, group rooms, and new technologies to help you succeed in your classes. I hope you have a chance to visit the Physical and Mathematical Sciences (PAMS) Library during our Open House. You can also visit the Statistics Research Guide for online sources of books, research articles, and career information.
When using information from another source you must give credit to the original author or you are plagiarizing. You give credit by citing the source. Make sure your citation contains everything you would need to backtrack and find the information again. It is best to pick one citation style and be consistent.
How can you trust information you find on the Internet? Where can you find an answer that is detailed enough to be useful, but not too complex for you to understand? Since anyone can publish information instantly on the World Wide Web distinguishing quality information can be very difficult. Before the coming of the information age, there were only a few options for research – books, magazines, and scholarly journals.
Scholarly journals (also called academic, peer-reviewed, or refereed journals) are the traditional method of communicating new scientific discoveries. Authors generally submit their articles to several other scientists for review and comment, and these reviewers must approve the article before it is published. Since the audience is other scientists, the language used is highly technical and specific to the field. Scholarly journals are one type of primary source for research.
Primary sources are newly created or recorded knowledge by a scientist or researcher. These can be scholarly journal articles, scientific reports or even an in-person presentation. Secondary sources review, discuss, or analyze primary sources and are written later. Some examples of secondary sources are encyclopedia articles, science news reports, and most books.
Both types of information sources may have citations, references to earlier research. Citations in a primary source are an acknowledgement of previous research and give a link between earlier knowledge and the current study. Citations in a secondary source indicate where the author got the information they used to write their review of the topic.