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HIST 21: American Civilization since 1877

Dr. Julie Gallagher

Chicago Style Citations

Whenever you use sources such as books, journals, or Web sites in your research papers you must give credit to the original author by properly citing the sources. Citations also help your reader find the sources again. There are a number of different citation styles, depending on the discipline in which you are working. For this class you'll be following Chicago Style Citations. 

The Chicago Manual of Style presents two basic documentation systems: (1) notes and bibliography and (2) author-date. Choosing between the two often depends on subject matter and the nature of sources cited, as each system is favored by different groups of scholars.

The notes and bibliography style is preferred by many in the humanities, including those in literature, history, and the arts. This style presents bibliographic information in notes and, often, a bibliography. It accommodates a variety of sources, including esoteric ones less appropriate to the author-date system.

The author-date system has long been used by those in the physical, natural, and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and date of publication. The short citations are amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided