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ENGL 015: Rhetoric and Composition (Dr. Paul deGategno)

Dr. Paul deGategno

MLA Style

This guide contains examples of common citation formats in MLA (Modern Language Association) Style, based on the 8th edition (2016) of the MLA Handbook. MLA style is widely used in the humanities, especially in writing on language and literature.

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The 8th edition of the MLA Handbook recommends using the following core elements in every citation. If elements are missing from the source, they should be omitted from the citation.

Author.
Title of source.
Title of container,
Other contributers,
Version,
Number,
Publisher,
Publication date
Location.

For online sources:

  • Include the URL (without http:// or https://). Angle brackets are not used around it.

  • Use DOIs (digital object identifiers) when possible.

  • Citing the date when an online work was consulted is optional.

  • Placeholders for unknown information like n.d. (“no date”) are no longer used.

Note: MLA recommends using hanging indentation for the second and subsequent lines of each entry.

For more information and examples, see the following resources

Using In-text Citation

Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list.

MLA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the page number from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken, for example: (Smith 163). If the source does not use page numbers, do not include a number in the parenthetical citation: (Smith).

Example paragraph with in-text citation

A few researchers in the linguistics field have developed training programs designed to improve native speakers' ability to understand accented speech (Derwing et al. 246; Thomas 15). Their training techniques are based on the research described above indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech. Derwing and others conducted their training with students preparing to be social workers, but note that other professionals who work with non-native speakers could benefit from a similar program (258).

References

Derwing, Tracey M., et al. "Teaching Native Speakers to Listen to Foreign-accented Speech." Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, vol. 23, no. 4, 2002, pp. 245-259.

Thomas, Holly K. Training Strategies for Improving Listeners' Comprehension of Foreign-accented Speech. University of Colorado, Boulder, 2004.

Articles

The 8th edition of the MLA Handbook recommends using the following core elements in every citation. If elements are missing from the source, they should be omitted from the citation.

Author.
Title of source.
Title of container,
Other contributers,
Version,
Number,
Publisher,
Publication date
Location.

For online sources:

  • Include the URL (without http:// or https://). Angle brackets are not used around it.

  • Use DOIs (digital object identifiers) when possible.

  • Citing the date when an online work was consulted is optional.

  • Placeholders for unknown information like n.d. (“no date”) are no longer used.

Article in a monthly magazine:

Swedin, Eric G. “Designing Babies: A Eugenics Race with China?”The Futurist, May/June 2006, pp. 18-21.

Article in a magazine article from an online database: ProQuest

Poe, Marshall. “The Hive.” Atlantic Monthly, Sept. 2006, pp. 86-95. ProQuest, search.proquest.com/docview/223086760/1FF29321A1C34D09PQ/1?accountid=13158.

Article in a weekly magazine:

Will, George F. “Waging War on Wal-Mart.” Newsweek, 5 July 2004, p. 64.

Article in a daily newspaper:

Dougherty, Ryan. “Jury Convicts Man in Drunk Driving Death.” Centre Daily Times, 11 Jan. 2006, p. 1A.

Article in a scholarly journal:

Stock, Carol D. and Philip A. Fisher. “Language Delays Among Foster Children: Implications for Policy and Practice.” Child Welfare, vol. 40, no. 3, 2006, pp. 445-462.

Article in an online magazine:

Schumaker, Erin. "What's the Deal with 'Natural' Sunscreen?" Huffington Post, 5 July 2016, www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/does-natural-sunscreen-work_us_57767571e4b0a629c1a98df8.

Book Review:

Rifkind, Donna. “Breaking Their Vows.” Review of The Mermaid Chair by Sue Monk Kidd. Washington Post, 10 Apr. 2005, p. T6.

Web Pages

The 8th edition of the MLA Handbook recommends using the following core elements in every citation. If elements are missing from the source, they should be omitted from the citation.

Author.
Title of source.
Title of container,
Other contributers,
Version,
Number,
Publisher,
Publication date
Location.

For online sources:

  • Include the URL (without http:// or https://). Angle brackets are not used around it.

  • Use DOIs (digital object identifiers) when possible.

  • Citing the date when an online work was consulted is optional.

  • Placeholders for unknown information like n.d. (“no date”) are no longer used.

Website with author:

Kraizer, Sherryll. Safe Child. Coalition for Children, 2008, www.safechild.org.

Web page with no author:

"Several Injured in Wrong-Way Crash on FDR: NYPD." NBCNewYork.com, 13 Nov. 2014, www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/NYC-FDR-Drive-East-Side-Highway-Wrong-Way-Crash-Traffic-Jam-282538721.html.